Dogmatic Constitution on Devine revelation Dei Verbum Solemnly
Promulgated by His Holiness Pople Paul VI on November 18, 1965
1. Hearing the word of God with reverence
and proclaiming it with faith, the sacred synod takes its direction
from these words of St. John: "We announce to you the eternal
life which dwelt with the Father and was made visible to us. What we
have seen and heard we announce to you, so that you may have
fellowship with us and our common fellowship be with the Father and
His Son Jesus Christ" (1 John 1:2-3). Therefore, following in
the footsteps of the Council of Trent and of the First Vatican
Council, this present council wishes to set forth authentic doctrine
on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by hearing the
message of salvation the whole world may believe, by believing it may
hope, and by hoping it may love. (1)
2. In His goodness and wisdom God chose
to reveal Himself and to make known to us the hidden purpose of His
will (see Eph. 1:9) by which through Christ, the Word made flesh, man
might in the Holy Spirit have access to the Father and come to share
in the divine nature (see Eph. 2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Through this
revelation, therefore, the invisible God (see Col. 1;15, 1 Tim. 1:17)
out of the abundance of His love speaks to men as friends (see Ex.
33:11; John 15:14-15) and lives among them (see Bar. 3:38), so that
He may invite and take them into fellowship with Himself. This plan
of revelation is realized by deeds and words having in inner unity:
the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and
confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the
words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them.
By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the
salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the
mediator and the fullness of all revelation. (2) 3. God, who through
the Word creates all things (see John 1:3) and keeps them in
existence, gives men an enduring witness to Himself in created
realities (see Rom. 1:19-20). Planning to make known the way of
heavenly salvation, He went further and from the start manifested
Himself to our first parents. Then after their fall His promise of
redemption aroused in them the hope of being saved (see Gen. 3:15)
and from that time on He ceaselessly kept the human race in His care,
to give eternal life to those who perseveringly do good in search of
salvation (see Rom. 2:6-7). Then, at the time He had appointed He
called Abraham in order to make of him a great nation (see Gen.
12:2). Through the patriarchs, and after them through Moses and the
prophets, He taught this people to acknowledge Himself the one living
and true God, provident father and just judge, and to wait for the
Savior promised by Him, and in this manner prepared the way for the
Gospel down through the centuries.
4. Then, after speaking in many and
varied ways through the prophets, "now at last in these days God
has spoken to us in His Son" (Heb. 1:1-2). For He sent His Son,
the eternal Word, who enlightens all men, so that He might dwell
among men and tell them of the innermost being of God (see John
1:1-18). Jesus Christ, therefore, the Word made flesh, was sent as
"a man to men." (3) He "speaks the words of God"
(John 3;34), and completes the work of salvation which His Father
gave Him to do (see John 5:36; Divine Revelation 17:4). To see Jesus
is to see His Father (John 14:9). For this reason Jesus perfected
revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making Himself
present and manifesting Himself: through His words and deeds, His
signs and wonders, but especially through His death and glorious
resurrection from the dead and final sending of the Spirit of truth.
Moreover He confirmed with divine testimony what revelation
proclaimed, that God is with us to free us from the darkness of sin
and death, and to raise us up to life eternal. The Christian
dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive covenant, will
never pass away and we now await no further new public revelation
before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ (see 1
Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13).
5. "The obedience of faith"
(Rom. 13:26; see 1:5; 2 Cor 10:5-6) "is to be given to God who
reveals, an obedience by which man commits his whole self freely to
God, offering the full submission of intellect and will to God who
reveals," (4) and freely assenting to the truth revealed by Him.
To make this act of faith, the grace of God and the interior help of
the Holy Spirit must precede and assist, moving the heart and turning
it to God, opening the eyes of the mind and giving "joy and ease
to everyone in assenting to the truth and believing it." (5) To
bring about an ever deeper understanding of revelation the same Holy
Spirit constantly brings faith to completion by His gifts.
6. Through divine revelation, God chose
to show forth and communicate Himself and the eternal decisions of
His will regarding the salvation of men. That is to say, He chose to
share with them those divine treasures which totally transcend the
understanding of the human mind. (6) As a sacred synod has affirmed,
God, the beginning and end of all things, can be known with certainty
from created reality by the light of human reason (see Rom. 1:20);
but teaches that it is through His revelation that those religious
truths which are by their nature accessible to human reason can be
known by all men with ease, with solid certitude and with no trace of
error, even in this present state of the human race. (7)
Handing on Divine Revelation
7. In His gracious goodness, God has seen
to it that what He had revealed for the salvation of all nations
would abide perpetually in its full integrity and be handed on to all
generations. Therefore Christ the Lord in whom the full revelation of
the supreme God is brought to completion (see Cor. 1:20; 3:13; 4:6),
commissioned the Apostles to preach to all men that Gospel which is
the source of all saving truth and moral teaching, (1) and to impart
to them heavenly gifts. This Gospel had been promised in former times
through the prophets, and Christ Himself had fulfilled it and
promulgated it with His lips. This commission was faithfully
fulfilled by the Apostles who, by their oral preaching, by example,
and by observances handed on what they had received from the lips of
Christ, from living with Him, and from what He did, or what they had
learned through the prompting of the Holy Spirit. The commission was
fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and apostolic men who under the
inspiration of the same Holy Spirit committed the message of
salvation to writing. (2)
But in order to keep the Gospel forever
whole and alive within the Church, the Apostles left bishops as their
successors, "handing over" to them "the authority to
teach in their own place."(3) This sacred tradition, therefore,
and Sacred Scripture of both the Old and New Testaments are like a
mirror in which the pilgrim Church on earth looks at God, from whom
she has received everything, until she is brought finally to see Him
as He is, face to face (see 1 John 3:2).
8. And so the apostolic preaching, which
is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be
preserved by an unending succession of preachers until the end of
time. Therefore the Apostles, handing on what they themselves had
received, warn the faithful to hold fast to the traditions which they
have learned either by word of mouth or by letter (see 2 Thess.
2:15), and to fight in defense of the faith handed on once and for
all (see Jude 1:3) (4) Now what was handed on by the Apostles
includes everything which contributes toward the holiness of life and
increase in faith of the peoples of God; and so the Church, in her
teaching, life and worship, perpetuates and hands on to all
generations all that she herself is, all that she believes.
This tradition which comes from the
Apostles develop in the Church with the help of the Holy Spirit.
(5) For there is a growth in the understanding of the realities and
the words which have been handed down. This happens through the
contemplation and study made by believers, who treasure
these things in their hearts (see Luke, 2:19, 51) through a
penetrating understanding of the spiritual realities which they
experience, and through the preaching of those who have received
through episcopal succession the sure gift of truth. For as the
centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly moves
forward toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of
God reach their complete fulfillment in her.
The words of the holy fathers witness to
the presence of this living tradition, whose wealth is poured
into the practice and life of the believing and praying Church.
Through the same tradition the Church's full canon of the sacred
books is known, and the sacred writings themselves are
more profoundly understood and unceasingly made active in her;
and thus God, who spoke of old, uninterruptedly converses with
the bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit, through whom
the living voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church, and
through her, in the world, leads unto all truth those who
believe and makes the word of Christ dwell abundantly in
them (see Col. 3:16).
9. Hence there exists a close connection
and communication between sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture.
For both of them, flowing from the same divine wellspring, in a
certain way merge into a unity and tend toward the same end. For
Sacred Scripture is the word of God inasmuch as it is consigned
to writing under the inspiration of the divine Spirit, while
sacred tradition takes the word of God entrusted by Christ the
Lord and the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and hands it on to
their successors in its full purity, so that led by the light of
the Spirit of truth, they may in proclaiming it preserve this
word of God faithfully, explain it, and make it more
widely known. Consequently it is not from Sacred Scripture alone
that the Church draws her certainty about everything which has
been revealed. Therefore both sacred tradition and Sacred
Scripture are to be accepted and venerated with the same sense
of loyalty and reverence.(6)
10. Sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture
form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the
Church. Holding fast to this deposit the entire holy people
united with their shepherds remain always steadfast in the
teaching of the Apostles, in the common life, in the breaking of the
bread and in prayers (see Acts 2, 42, Greek text), so that
holding to, practicing and professing the heritage of the faith,
it becomes on the part of the bishops and faithful a single
common effort. (7)
But the task of authentically
interpreting the word of God, whether written or handed on, (8)
has been entrusted exclusively to the living teaching office of
the Church, (9) whose authority is exercised in the name of
Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not above the word of God,
but serves it, teaching only what has been handed on, listening
to it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and explaining it
faithfully in accord with a divine commission and with the help
of the Holy Spirit, it draws from this one deposit of
faith everything which it presents for belief as divinely revealed.
It is clear, therefore, that sacred
tradition, Sacred Scripture and the teaching authority of the
Church, in accord with God's most wise design, are so linked and
joined together that one cannot stand without the others, and
that all together and each in its own way under the action of
the one Holy Spirit contribute effectively to the salvation of souls.
Sacred Scripture, Its Inspiration and Divine Interpretations
11. Those divinely revealed realities
which are contained and presented in Sacred Scripture have been
committed to writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
For holy mother Church, relying on the belief of the Apostles
(see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-20, 3:15-16),
holds that the books of both the Old and New Testaments in their
entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and canonical because
written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God
as their author and have been handed on as such to the Church
herself.(1) In composing the sacred books, God chose men and
while employed by Him (2) they made use of their powers
and abilities, so that with Him acting in them and through them,
(3) they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything and
only those things which He wanted. (4)
Therefore, since everything asserted by
the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be
asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of
Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully
and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred
writings (5) for the sake of salvation. Therefore "all
Scripture is divinely inspired and has its use for teaching the
truth and refuting error, for reformation of manners and
discipline in right living, so that the man who belongs to God may
be efficient and equipped for good work of every kind" (2
Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text).
12. However, since God speaks in Sacred
Scripture through men in human fashion, (6) the interpreter of
Sacred Scripture, in order to see clearly what God wanted to
communicate to us, should carefully investigate what meaning the
sacred writers really intended, and what God wanted to manifest
by means of their words.
To search out the intention of the sacred
writers, attention should be given, among other things, to
"literary forms." For truth is set forth and
expressed differently in texts which are variously historical,
prophetic, poetic, or of other forms of discourse. The
interpreter must investigate what meaning the sacred writer
intended to express and actually expressed in
particular circumstances by using contemporary literary forms in
accordance with the situation of his own time and culture. (7)
For the correct understanding of what the sacred author wanted
to assert, due attention must be paid to the customary and
characteristic styles of feeling, speaking and narrating
which prevailed at the time of the sacred writer, and to the
patterns men normally employed at that period in their everyday
dealings with one another. (8)
But, since Holy Scripture must be read
and interpreted in the sacred spirit in which it was written,
(9) no less serious attention must be given to the content and
unity of the whole of Scripture if the meaning of the sacred
texts is to be correctly worked out. The living tradition of the
whole Church must be taken into account along with the harmony
which exists between elements of the faith. It is the task of
exegetes to work according to these rules toward a better
understanding and explanation of the meaning of Sacred
Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgment of
the Church may mature. For all of what has been said about the
way of interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgment
of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and
ministry of guarding and interpreting the word of God. (10)
13. In Sacred Scripture, therefore, while
the truth and holiness of God always remains intact, the
marvelous "condescension" of eternal wisdom is clearly
shown, "that we may learn the gentle kindness of God, which
words cannot express, and how far He has gone in adapting His
language with thoughtful concern for our weak human nature."
(11) For the words of God, expressed in human language, have
been made like human discourse, just as the word of the eternal
Father, when He took to Himself the flesh of human weakness, was
in every way made like men.
The Old Testament
14. In carefully planning and preparing
the salvation of the whole human race the God of infinite love,
by a special dispensation, chose for Himself a people to whom He
would entrust His promises. First He entered into a covenant
with Abraham (see Gen. 15:18) and, through Moses, with the people
of Israel (see Ex. 24:8). To this people which He had acquired
for Himself, He so manifested Himself through words and deeds as
the one true and living God that Israel came to know by
experience the ways of God with men. Then too, when God Himself
spoke to them through the mouth of the prophets, Israel daily
gained a deeper and clearer understanding of His ways and made
them more widely known among the nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3;
Is. 2:1-5; Jer. 3:17). The plan of salvation foretold by the
sacred authors, recounted and explained by them, is found as the
true word of God in the books of the Old Testament: these books,
therefore, written under divine inspiration, remain permanently
valuable. "For all that was written for our instruction, so
that by steadfastness and the encouragement of the Scriptures we
might have hope" (Rom. 15:4).
15. The principal purpose to which the
plan of the old covenant was directed was to prepare for the
coming of Christ, the redeemer of all and of the messianic
kingdom, to announce this coming by prophecy (see Luke 24:44;
John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to indicate its meaning through
various types (see 1 Cor. 10:12). Now the books of the Old
Testament, in accordance with the state of mankind before the
time of salvation established by Christ, reveal to all men the
knowledge of God and of man and the ways in which God, just and
merciful, deals with men. These books, though they also contain
some things which are incomplete and temporary, nevertheless
show us true divine pedagogy. (1) These same books, then, give
expression to a lively sense of God, contain a store of
sublime teachings about God, sound wisdom about human life, and
a wonderful treasury of prayers, and in them the mystery of our
salvation is present in a hidden way. Christians should receive
them with reverence.
16. God, the inspirer and author of both
Testaments, wisely arranged that the New Testament be hidden in
the Old and the Old be made manifest in the New. (2) For, though
Christ established the new covenant in His blood (see Luke
22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25), still the books of the Old Testament
with all their parts, caught up into the proclamation of the
Gospel, (3) acquire and show forth their full meaning in the New
Testament (see Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:27; Rom. 16:25-26; 2 Cor.
14:16) and in turn shed light on it and explain it.
The New Testament
17. The word God, which is the power of
God for the salvation of all who believe (see Rom. 1:16), is set
forth and shows its power in a most excellent way in the
writings of the New Testament. For when the fullness of time
arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made flesh and dwelt
among us in His fullness of graces and truth (see John 1:14).
Christ established the kingdom of God on earth, manifested His
Father and Himself by deeds and words, and completed His work by
His death, resurrection and glorious Ascension and by the
sending of the Holy Spirit. Having been lifted up from the
earth, He draws all men to Himself (see John 12:32, Greek text),
He who alone has the words of eternal life (see John 6:68). This
mystery had not been manifested to other generations as it was
now revealed to His holy Apostles and prophets in the Holy
Spirit (see Eph. 3:4-6, Greek text), so that they might preach
the Gospel, stir up faith in Jesus, Christ and Lord, and gather
together the Church. Now the writings of the New Testament stand
as a perpetual and divine witness to these realities.
18. It is common knowledge that among all
the Scriptures, even those of the New Testament, the Gospels
have a special preeminence, and rightly so, for they are the
principal witness for the life and teaching of the
incarnate Word, our savior.
The Church has always and everywhere held
and continues to hold that the four Gospels are of apostolic
origin. For what the Apostles preached in fulfillment of the
commission of Christ, afterwards they themselves and apostolic
men, under the inspiration of the divine Spirit, handed on to us
in writing: the foundation of faith, namely, the fourfold
Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.(1)
19. Holy Mother Church has firmly and
with absolute constancy held, and continues to hold, that the
four Gospels just named, whose historical character the Church
unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully hand on what Jesus Christ,
while living among men, really did and taught for their
eternal salvation until the day He was taken up into heaven (see
Acts 1:1). Indeed, after the Ascension of the Lord the Apostles
handed on to their hearers what He had said and done. This they
did with that clearer understanding which they enjoyed (3) after
they had been instructed by the glorious events of Christ's life
and taught by the light of the Spirit of truth. (2) The
sacred authors wrote the four Gospels, selecting some things
from the many which had been handed on by word of mouth or in
writing, reducing some of them to a synthesis, explaining some
things in view of the situation of their churches and preserving
the form of proclamation but always in such fashion that they
told us the honest truth about Jesus.(4) For their intention
in writing was that either from their own memory and
recollections, or from the witness of those who "themselves
from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the
Word" we might know "the truth" concerning
those matters about which we have been instructed (see Luke 1:2-4).
20. Besides the four Gospels, the canon
of the New Testament also contains the epistles of St. Paul and
other apostolic writings, composed under the inspiration of the
Holy Spirit, by which, according to the wise plan of God, those
matters which concern Christ the Lord are confirmed, His
true teaching is more and more fully stated, the saving power of
the divine work of Christ is preached, the story is told of the
beginnings of the Church and its marvelous growth, and its
glorious fulfillment is foretold.
For the Lord Jesus was with His apostles
as He had promised (see Matt. 28:20) and sent them the advocate
Spirit who would lead them into the fullness of truth (see John 16:13).
Sacred Scripture in the Life of the Church
21. The Church has always venerated the
divine Scriptures just as she venerates the body of the Lord,
since, especially in the sacred liturgy, she unceasingly
receives and offers to the faithful the bread of life from
the table both of God's word and of Christ's body. She has
always maintained them, and continues to do so, together with
sacred tradition, as the supreme rule of faith, since, as
inspired by God and committed once and for all to writing, they
impart the word of God Himself without change, and make the voice
of the Holy Spirit resound in the words of the prophets and Apostles.
Therefore, like the Christian religion
itself, all the preaching of the Church must be nourished and
regulated by Sacred Scripture. For in the sacred books, the
Father who is in heaven meets His children with great love
and speaks with them; and the force and power in the word of God
is so great that it stands as the support and energy of the
Church, the strength of faith for her sons, the food of the
soul, the pure and everlasting source of spiritual life.
Consequently these words are perfectly applicable to
Sacred Scripture: "For the word of God is living and
active" (Heb. 4:12) and "it has power to build you up
and give you your heritage among all those who are
sanctified" (Acts 20:32; see 1 Thess. 2:13).
22. Easy access to Sacred Scripture
should be provided for all the Christian faithful. That is why
the Church from the very beginning accepted as her own that very
ancient Greek translation; of the Old Testament which is called
the septuagint; and she has always given a place of honor to
other Eastern translations and Latin ones especially the Latin
translation known as the vulgate. But since the word of God
should be accessible at all times, the Church by her authority
and with maternal concern sees to it that suitable and correct
translations are made into different languages, especially from
the original texts of the sacred books. And should
the opportunity arise and the Church authorities approve, if
these translations are produced in cooperation with the
separated brethren as well, all Christians will be able to use them.
23. The bride of the incarnate Word, the Church
taught by the Holy Spirit, is concerned to move ahead toward a
deeper understanding of the Sacred Scriptures so that she may
increasingly feed her sons with the divine words. Therefore, she
also encourages the study of the holy Fathers of both East and
West and of sacred liturgies. Catholic exegetes then and other
students of sacred theology, working diligently together and
using appropriate means, should devote their energies, under the
watchful care of the sacred teaching office of the Church, to an
exploration and exposition of the divine writings. This should
be so done that as many ministers of the divine word as possible
will be able effectively to provide the nourishment of
the Scriptures for the people of God, to enlighten their minds,
strengthen their wills, and set men's hearts on fire with the
love of God. (1) The sacred synod encourages the sons of the
Church and Biblical scholars to continue energetically,
following the mind of the Church, with the work they have so well
begun, with a constant renewal of vigor. (2)
24. Sacred theology rests on the written
word of God, together with sacred tradition, as its primary and
perpetual foundation. By scrutinizing in the light of faith all
truth stored up in the mystery of Christ, theology is
most powerfully strengthened and constantly rejuvenated by that
word. For the Sacred Scriptures contain the word of God and
since they are inspired really are the word of God; and so the
study of the sacred page is, as it were, the soul of sacred
theology. (3) By the same word of Scripture the ministry of the
word also, that is, pastoral preaching, catechetics and
all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily must
hold the foremost place, is nourished in a healthy way and
flourishes in a holy way.
25. Therefore, all the clergy must hold
fast to the Sacred Scriptures through diligent sacred reading
and careful study, especially the priests of Christ and others,
such as deacons and catechists who are legitimately active in the
ministry of the word. This is to be done so that none of them
will become "an empty preacher of the word of God
outwardly, who is not a listener to it inwardly" (4) since
they must share the abundant wealth of the divine word with the
faithful committed to them, especially in the sacred liturgy.
The sacred synod also earnestly and especially urges all
the Christian faithful, especially Religious, to learn by
frequent reading of the divine Scriptures the "excellent
knowledge of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8).
"For ignorance of the Scriptures is
ignorance of Christ."(5) Therefore, they should gladly put
themselves in touch with the sacred text itself, whether it be
through the liturgy, rich in the divine word, or through
devotional reading, or through instructions suitable for the
purpose and other aids which, in our time, with approval and
active support of the shepherds of the Church, are commendably
spread everywhere. And let them remember that prayer should
accompany the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that God and man
may talk together; for "we speak to Him when we pray; we hear
Him when we read the divine saying." (6)
It devolves on sacred bishops "who
have the apostolic teaching"(7) to give the faithful
entrusted to them suitable instruction in the right use of
the divine books, especially the New Testament and above all the
Gospels. This can be done through translations of the sacred
texts, which are to be provided with the necessary and really
adequate explanations so that the children of the Church may
safely and profitably become conversant with the Sacred
Scriptures and be penetrated with their spirit.
Furthermore, editions of the Sacred
Scriptures, provided with suitable footnotes, should be prepared
also for the use of non-Christians and adapted to their
situation. Both pastors of souls and Christians generally should
see to the wise distribution of these in one way or another.
26. In this way, therefore, through the
reading and study of the sacred books "the word of God may
spread rapidly and be glorified" (2 Thess. 3:1) and the
treasure of revelation, entrusted to the Church, may more and more
fill the hearts of men. Just as the life of the Church is
strengthened through more frequent celebration of the
Eucharistic mystery, similar we may hope for a new stimulus for
the life of the Spirit from a growing reverence for the word of
God, which "lasts forever" (Is. 40:8; see 1 Peter 1:23-25).
1. cf. St. Augustine, "De
Catechizandis Rudibus," C.IV 8: PL. 40, 316.
2. cf. Matt. 11:27; John 1:14 and 17;
14:6; 17:1-3; 2 Cor 3:16 and 4, 6; Eph. 1, 3-14.
3. Epistle to Diognetus, c. VII, 4: Funk,
Apostolic Fathers, I, p. 403.
4. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 3, "On
Faith:" Denzinger 1789 (3008).
5. Second Council of Orange, Canon 7:
Denzinger 180 (377); First Vatican Council, loc. cit.: Denzinger
6. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 2, "On
Revelation:" Denzinger 1786 (3005).
7. Ibid: Denzinger 1785 and 1786 (3004
1. cf. Matt. 28:19-20, and Mark 16:15;
Council of Trent, session IV, Decree on Scriptural Canons:
Denzinger 783 (1501).
2. cf. Council of Trent, loc. cit.; First
Vatican Council, session III, Dogmatic Constitution on the
Catholic Faith, Chap. 2, "On revelation:" Denzinger
3. St. Irenaeus, "Against
Heretics" III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2, p. 9.
4. cf. Second Council of Nicea: Denzinger
303 (602); Fourth Council of Constance, session X, Canon 1:
Denzinger 336 (650-652).
5. cf. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith,
Chap. 4, "On Faith and Reason:"
Denzinger 1800 (3020).
6. cf. Council of Trent, session IV, loc.
cit.: Denzinger 783 (1501).
7. cf. Pius XII, apostolic constitution,
"Munificentissimus Deus," Nov. 1, 1950: A.A.S. 42
(1950) p. 756; Collected Writings of St. Cyprian, Letter 66, 8:
Hartel, III, B, p. 733: "The Church [is] people united with the
priest and the pastor together with his flock."
8. cf. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 3 "On Faith:"
Denzinger 1792 (3011).
9. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Humani
Generis," Aug. 12, 1950: A.A.S. 42 (1950) pp. 568-69:
Denzinger 2314 (3886).
1. cf. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith, Chap. 2 "On
Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006); Biblical
Commission, Decree of June 18,1915: Denzinger 2180 (3629): EB
420; Holy Office, Epistle of Dec. 22, 1923: EB 499.
2. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Divino
Afflante Spiritu," Sept. 30, 1943: A.A.S. 35 (1943) p. 314;
Enchiridion Bible. (EB) 556.
3. "In" and "for"
man: cf. Heb. 1, and 4, 7; ("in"): 2 Sm. 23,2; Matt.1:22
and various places; ("for"): First Vatican Council,
Schema on Catholic Doctrine, note 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.
4. Leo XIII, encyclical
"Providentissimus Deus," Nov. 18, 1893: Denzinger 1952
(3293); EB 125.
5. cf. St. Augustine, "Gen. ad
Litt." 2, 9, 20:PL 34, 270-271; Epistle 82, 3: PL 33, 277:
CSEL 34, 2, p. 354. St. Thomas, "On Truth," Q. 12, A.
2, C.Council of Trent, session IV, Scriptural Canons: Denzinger
783 (1501). Leo XIII, encyclical "Providentissimus
Deus:" EB 121, 124, 126-127. Pius XII, encyclical
"Divino Afflante Spiritu:" EB 539.
6. St. Augustine, "City of God,"
XVII, 6, 2: PL 41, 537: CSEL. XL, 2, 228.
7. St. Augustine, "On Christian
Doctrine" III, 18, 26; PL 34, 75-76.
8. Pius XII, loc. cit. Denziger 2294
(3829-3830); EB 557-562.
9. cf. Benedict XV, encyclical
"Spiritus Paraclitus" Sept. 15, 1920:EB 469. St.
Jerome, "In Galatians' 5, 19-20: PL 26, 417 A.
10. cf. First Vatican Council, Dogmatic
Constitution on the Catholic Faith,
Chapter 2, "On Revelation:"
Denziger 1788 (3007).
11. St. John Chrysostom "In
Genesis" 3, 8 (Homily l7, 1): PG 53,
134; "Attemperatio" [in English "Suitable
adjustment"] in Greek "synkatabasis."
1. Pius XI, encyclical 'Mit Brennender
Sorge," March 14, 1937: A.A.S. 29 (1937) p. 51.
2. St. Augustine, "Quest. in
Hept." 2,73: PL 34,623.
3. St. Irenaeus, "Against
Heretics" III, 21,3: PG 7,950; (Same as 25,1: Harvey 2, p.
115). St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "Catech." 4,35; PG
33,497. Theodore of Mopsuestia, "In Soph." 1,4-6: PG
1. cf. St. Irenaeus, "Against
Heretics" III, 11; 8: PG 7,885, Sagnard Edition, p. 194.
(Due to the necessities
of translation, footnote 2 follows footnote 3 in text of Article 19.)
2. cf. John 14:26; 16:13.
3. John 2:22; 12:16; cf. 14:26; 16:12-13; 7:39.
4. cf. instruction "Holy Mother
Church" edited by Pontifical Consilium for Promotion of
Bible Studies; A.A.S. 56 (1964) p. 715.
1. cf. Pius XII, encyclical "Divino
Afflante Spiritu:" EB 551, 553, 567. Pontifical Biblical
Commission, Instruction on Proper Teaching of Sacred Scripture
in Seminaries and Religious Colleges, May 13, 1950: A.A.S.
42 (1950) pp. 495-505.
2. cf. Pius XII, ibid: EB 569.
3. cf. Leo XIII, encyclical
"Providentissmus Deus:" EB 114; Benedict XV, encyclical
"Spiritus Paraclitus:" EB 483.
4. St. Augustine Sermons, 179,1: PL 38,966.
5. St. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah,
Prol.: PL 24,17. cf. Benedict XV, encyclical "Spiritus
Paraclitus:" EB 475-480; Pius XII, encyclical
"Divino Afflante Spiritu:" EB 544.
6. St. Ambrose, On the Duties of
Ministers I, 20,88: PL l6,50.
7. St. Irenaeus, "Against
Heretics" IV, 32,1: PG 7, 1071; (Same as 49,2) Harvey, 2,
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